Psychoanalytic theory - Wikipedia

 

psychoanalytic approach to literature

Introduction to Literature Michael Delahoyde. Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts. It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses. This is one kind of insight you can gain, then, from psychoanalysis: insight into yourself. (Ooh, aah.) We're not saying that psychoanalytic theory can teach you everything about where you come from and who you are. But it's hard to think of another critical school that invites readers so openly to connect literature and life. Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. While we don't have the room here to discuss all of Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The Unconscious, the Desires, and the Defenses.


Psychoanalytic Theory & Approaches | APsaA


This perspective of psychoanalysis was dominant in America for approximately a year span until the s. Meanwhile, in Europe, various theoretical approaches had been developed. Today, the ego psychology that was dominant in American psychoanalytic thought for so many years has been significantly modified and is also currently strongly influenced by the developing relational point of view. The diverse schools of therapeutic approach currently operative in America include influences from British object relationists, "modern Freudians", the theories of Klein and Bion, self-psychology, the Lacanians, and more.

Truly, a kaleidoscope of approaches is now available at psychoanalytic institutions psychoanalytic approach to literature the United States. Many psychoanalysts believe that the human experience can be best accounted for by an integration of these perspectives.

Whatever theoretical perspective a psychoanalyst employs, the fundamentals of psychoanalysis are always present—an understanding of transference, an interest in the unconscious, and the centrality of the psychoanalyst-patient relationship in the healing process. The term "attachment" is used to describe the affective feeling-based bond that develops between an infant and a primary caregiver. The father of attachment theory, John Bowlby, M. It is important to note that attachment is not a one-way street.

As the caregiver psychoanalytic approach to literature the child, the child also affects the caregiver. Transference is a concept that refers to our natural tendency to respond to certain situations in unique, psychoanalytic approach to literature ways--predetermined by much earlier, formative experiences usually within the context of the primary attachment relationship.

These patterns, deeply ingrained, arise sometimes unexpectedly and unhelpfully--in psychoanalysis, we would say that old reactions constitute the core of a person's problem, and that he or she needs to understand them well in order to be able to make more useful choices.

Transference is what is transferred to new situations from previous situations. Freud coined the word "transference" to refer to this ubiquitous psychological phenomenon, and it remains one of the most powerful explanatory tools in psychoanalysis today—both in the clinical setting and when psychoanalysts use their theory to explain human behavior.

Transference describes the tendency for a person to base some perceptions and expectations in present day relationships on his or her earlier attachments, especially to parents, siblings, and significant others.

Because of transference, we do not see others entirely objectively but rather "transfer" onto them qualities of other important figures from our earlier life. Thus transference leads to distortions in interpersonal relationships, as well as nuances of intensity and fantasy. The psychoanalytic treatment setting is designed to magnify transference phenomena so that they can be examined and untangled from present day relationships. These experiences can range from a fear of abandonment to anger at not being given to fear of being smothered and feelings of.

One common type psychoanalytic approach to literature transference is the idealizing transference. We have the tendency to look towards doctors, priests, rabbis, and politicians in a particular way—we elevate them but expect more of them than mere humans. Psychoanalysts have a theory to explain why we become so enraged when admired figures let us down.

The concept of transference has become as ubiquitous in our culture as it is in our psyches. But this explanatory concept is constantly in use.

For example, in season three of the television series Madmen, one of the female leads is romantically drawn to a significantly older man just after her father dies. She sees him as extraordinarily competent and steady. Some types of coaching and self-help techniques use transference in a manipulative way, though not necessarily negatively, psychoanalytic approach to literature. Essentially, this person accepts the transference as omnipotent parent and uses this power to tell the client what to do.

Often the results obtained are short lived. Along with transference, resistance is one of the two cornerstones of psychoanalysis. As uncomfortable thoughts and feelings begin to psychoanalytic approach to literature close to the surface--that is, become conscious--a patient will automatically resist the self-exploration that would bring them psychoanalytic approach to literature into the open, because of the discomfort associated with these powerful emotional states that are not registered as memories, but experienced as fully contemporary—transferences.

The patient is thus experiencing life at too great an intensity because he or she is burdened by transferences or painful emotions derived from another source, and must use various defenses resistances to avoid their full emotional intensity.

These resistances can take the form of suddenly changing the topic, falling into silence, or trying to discontinue the treatment altogether. As the analysis progresses, patients may begin to feel less threatened and more capable psychoanalytic approach to literature facing the painful things that first led them to analysis.

In other words, psychoanalytic approach to literature, they may begin to overcome their resistance. Psychoanalysts consider resistance to be one of their most powerful tools, as it acts like a metal detector, signaling the presence of buried material. Trauma is a severe shock to the system. Sometimes the system is psychical; the trauma is a deep emotional blow or wound which itself might be connected to a physical trauma.

While many emotional wounds take a while to resolve, a psychic trauma may continue to linger. Often this lack of resolution can foster a repetition compulsion--a chronic re-visiting of the trauma through rumination or dreams, or an impulse to place oneself in other psychoanalytic approach to literature situations, psychoanalytic approach to literature.

Psychoanalysis can help the victim to develop emotional and behavioral strategies to deal with the trauma, psychoanalytic approach to literature. Fortunately, the need for trauma survivors to have treatment is now well understood in the broader mental health community, psychoanalytic approach to literature. Certain medications are helpful in the treatment of trauma, but there should always be a psychological component to the treatment, and it must be understood that treatment can be needed years after the trauma is experienced.

Treatment of PTSD still contains elements that harken back to psychoanalysis—trauma patients need a witness to their pain, who helps them, bit by bit, incorporate the traumatic experience with the rest of the story of their lives in some way that can make sense.

Facing unbearable feelings with another human being, and supporting and employing the ego-the part of the mind responsible for decision making, understanding cause and effect, and discrimination—all these techniques owe their roots to psychoanalysis.

Skip to main content. Search form Search. Find An Analyst Events. Current Psychoanalytic Treatment Approaches Today, the ego psychology that was dominant in American psychoanalytic thought for so psychoanalytic approach to literature years has been significantly modified and is also currently strongly influenced by the developing relational point of view, psychoanalytic approach to literature.

Attachment Theory The term "attachment" is used to describe the affective feeling-based bond that develops between an infant and a primary caregiver. Transference Transference is a concept that refers to our natural tendency to respond to certain situations in unique, predetermined ways--predetermined by much earlier, formative experiences usually within the context of the primary attachment relationship.

Resistance Along with transference, resistance is one of the two cornerstones of psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic approach to literature. Trauma Trauma psychoanalytic approach to literature a severe shock to the system. Senate to Support It. View All Posts. Share APsaA. Find An Analyst Find a psychoanalyst in your area who can help you to make substantive, lasting changes in your life.

About Psychoanalysis Brochure. Visit the Bookstore.

 

Examples of Psychoanalytic Theory

 

psychoanalytic approach to literature

 

Introduction to Literature Michael Delahoyde. Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts. It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses. Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating bodreviews-i.ga laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work. Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence in the last third of the twentieth. Fisher and Greenberg (), in a review of the literature, conclude that psychoanalytic theory cannot be accepted or rejected as a package, 'it is a complete structure consisting of many parts, some of which should be accepted, others rejected and the others at least partially reshaped.'.