Paraphrasing - Excelsior College OWL

 

purdue owl paraphrasing

Learn to borrow from a source without plagiarizing. For more information on paraphrasing, as well as other ways to integrate sources into your paper, see the Purdue OWL handout Quoting Paraphrasing, and bodreviews-i.ga more information about writing research papers, see our resource on this subject. Purdue students will want to make sure that they are familiar with Purdue's official academic. May 09,  · This vidcast discusses how to format a paper using Microsoft Word according to APA style. To learn more about APA style, please visit the following resource. Paraphrasing is likely the most common way you will integrate your source information. Quoting should be minimal in most research papers. Paraphrasing allows you to integrate sources without losing your voice as a writer to those sources. Paraphrasing can be tricky, however. You really have to make changes to the wording.


Purdue OWL MLA Citation ,Works Cited, in Text Citation & Sample Paper


When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Summary: This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, purdue owl paraphrasing, and summaries.

This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.

Quotations must be identical to the original, purdue owl paraphrasing a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words, purdue owl paraphrasing.

A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, purdue owl paraphrasing, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea s into your own words, including only the main point s.

Once again, purdue owl paraphrasing is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes.

You might use them to: Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing Give examples of several points of view on a subject Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own Expand the breadth or depth of purdue owl paraphrasing writing Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations.

As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example: In his famous and influential work The Interpretation of Dreams, purdue owl paraphrasing, Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the purdue owl paraphrasing pageexpressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process purdue owl paraphrasing as the "dream-work" page.

According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself page. How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries Practice summarizing the essay found here, using paraphrases and quotations as you go.

It might be helpful to follow these steps: Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.

Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly, purdue owl paraphrasing. There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, purdue owl paraphrasing, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence.

Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so, purdue owl paraphrasing. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages. Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material.

Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information. A paraphrase is Your own rendition of essential purdue owl paraphrasing and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. One legitimate way when accompanied by accurate documentation to borrow from a source. A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage, purdue owl paraphrasing. It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the purdue owl paraphrasing meaning of the original.

Reread the original passage until you understand its full purdue owl paraphrasing. Set the original aside, and purdue owl paraphrasing your paraphrase on a note card.

Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.

Record the source including the page on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper, purdue owl paraphrasing. Some examples to compare The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, purdue owl paraphrasing as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Lester, James D. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted purdue owl paraphrasing down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim Lester An acceptable summary: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper Lester A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper.

So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. A note about plagiarism: This example has been classed as plagiarism, in part, because of its failure to deploy any citation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in the academic world. However, we acknowledge that plagiarism purdue owl paraphrasing a difficult term to define; that its definition may be contextually sensitive; and that not all instances of plagiarism are created equalthat is, there are varying degrees of egregiousness for different cases of plagiarism.

Sample Essay for Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting The following is a sample essay you can practice quoting, paraphrasing, purdue owl paraphrasing, and summarizing. Examples of each task are provided at the end of the essay for further reference. Here is the citation for Sipher's essay: Sipher, Roger. The New York Times, 19 Dec. One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the quality education that is the birthright of every American.

The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education to attend. This will not end public education. Contrary to conventional belief, legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws to legalize what already existed.

William Landes and Lewis Solomon, purdue owl paraphrasing, economists, found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the number of children in school. They found, too, that school systems have never effectively enforced such laws, usually purdue owl paraphrasing of the expense involved.

There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward improving education. Most parents want a high school education for their children.

Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational and disciplinary policies and thereby make the education a good purdue owl paraphrasing. Private schools have no such problem.

They can fail or dismiss students, knowing such students can attend public school, purdue owl paraphrasing. Without compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust students whose academic or personal behavior undermines the educational mission of the institution. Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone failed?

While we pay homage to the homily, "You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink," we have pretended it is not true in education. Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of value, purdue owl paraphrasing. Ask teachers if these students do any homework. Quite the contrary, these students know they will be passed from grade to grade until they are old enough to quit or until, as is more likely, they receive a high purdue owl paraphrasing diploma.

At the point when students could legally quit, purdue owl paraphrasing, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not.

Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous dividends. First, purdue owl paraphrasing, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one goes to learn. Schools are neither day-care centers nor indoor street corners. Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed, an end to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away, purdue owl paraphrasing.

Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the educational atmosphere for those who want to learn. Teachers could stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating. Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a student is learning. Parents could again read report cards and know if their children were making progress. Fourth, public esteem for schools would increase. People would stop regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of them as institutions for educating America's youth.

Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later. Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to junior high and high school. Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be eliminated, purdue owl paraphrasing.

Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently absent from school. Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal with young people not in school. If, in the long run, these institutions prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with that of schools.

Schools should be for education. At present, they are only tangentially so. They have attempted to serve an all-encompassing social function, purdue owl paraphrasing, trying to be all things to all people.

 

Paraphrasing // Purdue Writing Lab

 

purdue owl paraphrasing

 

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Quotations must be identical to the original, using a . accurately quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing source material. Directions: The exercises in this module require writing, so you need to open a blank word document, or get a pen/pencil and paper to complete these exercises. 1. Complete the paraphrasing exercise available at The OWL at Purdue. 2. Paraphrasing is likely the most common way you will integrate your source information. Quoting should be minimal in most research papers. Paraphrasing allows you to integrate sources without losing your voice as a writer to those sources. Paraphrasing can be tricky, however. You really have to make changes to the wording.