## Simple Random Sampling - Research-Methodology

In fact, the sampling procedure largely depends on who are your respondents. If it is the general public you may go for random sampling if the the area you are covering is not that large otherwise. Aug 25, · A case study research design for instance, employs purposive sampling procedure to arrive at a particular ‘case’ of study and a given group of respondents. Key informants are also selected using this procedure. Convenience Sampling Procedure. Convenience sampling is sometimes known as opportunity, accidental or haphazard sampling sampling. Sampling and data collection cover lots of area in research with what sampling are and that data collection is the scales of measurement. In research there are different types of validity and reliability that is needed to make sure that the research is done properly and there is no errors when doing it.

## Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper Essay Example

Sampling is a process or technique of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in the study; it is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals selected represent the large group from which they were selected Ogula, There are two major sampling procedures in research. These include probability and non probability sampling. In probability sampling, everyone has an equal chance of being selected.

This scheme is one in which every unit in the population has a chance greater than zero of being selected in the sample. There are four basic types of sampling procedures associated with probability samples. These include simple random, systematic sampling, stratified and cluster, **sampling procedure in research paper**. Simple random sampling provides the base from which the other more complex sampling methodologies are derived. To conduct *sampling procedure in research paper* simple random sample, the researcher must first prepare an exhaustive list sampling frame of all members of the population of interest.

From this list, the sample is drawn so that each person or item has an equal chance of being drawn during each selection round Kanupriya, To draw a simple random sample without introducing researcher bias, computerized sampling programs and random number tables are used to impartially select the members of the population to be sampled.

Subjects in the population are sampled by a random process, using either a random number generator or a random number table, so that each person remaining in the population has the same probability of being selected for the sample Friedrichs, Systematic sampling procedure often used in place of simple random sampling.

In systematic sampling, the researcher selects every nth member after randomly selecting the first through nth element as the starting point, *sampling procedure in research paper*.

For example, if the researcher decides to sample 20 repondents from a sample ofevery 5th member of the population will systematically be selected. A researcher may choose to conduct a systematic sample instead of a simple random sample for several reasons. Firstly, systematic samples tend to **sampling procedure in research paper** easier to draw and execute, secondly, the researcher does not have to go back and forth through the sampling frame to draw the members to be sampled, thirdly, a systematic sample may spread the members selected for measurement more evenly across the entire population than simple random sampling.

Therefore, in some cases, systematic sampling may be more representative of the population and more precise Groves et al. Stratified sampling procedure is the most effective method of sampling when a researcher wants to get a representative sample of a population. An independent simple random sample is then drawn from each group. Stratified sampling techniques can provide more precise estimates if the population being surveyed is more heterogeneous than the categorized groups.

This technique can enable the researcher to determine desired levels of sampling precision for each group, and can provide administrative efficiency. In cluster sampling, a cluster a group of population elementsconstitutes the sampling unit, instead of a single element of the population.

The sampling in this technique is mainly geographically driven. The sampling frame is also often readily available at cluster level and takes short time for listing and implementation. The technique is also suitable for survey of institutions Ahmed, or households within a given geographical area. Non probability sampling is used in some situations, where the population may not **sampling procedure in research paper** well defined.

In other situations, there may not be great interest in drawing inferences from the sample to the population. The most common reason for using non *sampling procedure in research paper* sampling procedure is that it is less expensive than probability sampling procedure and can often be implemented more quickly Michael, It includes purposive, convenience and quota sampling procedures, *sampling procedure in research paper*.

The selection of a purposive sample is often accomplished by applying expert knowledge of the target population to select in a non random manner a sample that represent a cross-section of the population Henry, A major disadvantage of this method is subjectivity since another researcher is likely to come up with a different sample when identifying important characteristics and picking typical elements to be in the sample.

Given the subjectivity of the selection mechanism, purposive sampling is generally considered most appropriate for the selection of small samples often from a limited geographic area or from a restricted population definition. Key informants are also selected using this procedure, **sampling procedure in research paper**. Convenience sampling is sometimes known as opportunity, accidental or haphazard sampling sampling.

It is a type of nonprobability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand, that is, a population which is readily available and convenient. The researcher using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough Michael, This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing.

Convenience sampling differs from purposive sampling in that expert judgment is not used to select a representative sample. The primary selection criterion relates to the ease of obtaining a sample. Ahmed, S, *sampling procedure in research paper*. Methods in Sample **Sampling procedure in research paper** Cluster Sampling. Friedrichs, R. Rapid Surveys unpublished. Groves, R. N onresponse in Household Interview Surveys. New York: John Wiley.

Responsive design for household surveys: Tools for actively controlling survey errors and costs. Journal of Royal Statististics Soceietyp. Kanupriya, C. Sampling methods. Prevention and treatment of item nonresponse. Journal of Official Statistics19, — Michael, P. Non probability Sampling. Encyclopedia of survey research Methods.

### Sampling Procedures | Kenya Projects Organization [KENPRO]

DISCLAIMER: This article is not written by Stanley Milgram, but is intended as an example of a psychology research paper that someone might have written after conducting the first Milgram-study. It's presented here for educational purposes. Normally you would use double spacing in the paper. EXAMPLE OF A RESEARCH PAPER. In fact, the sampling procedure largely depends on who are your respondents. If it is the general public you may go for random sampling if the the area you are covering is not that large otherwise. Recall that the sampling procedure must reflect the unit of analysis. In a study where the unit of analysis is the student, the researcher must obtain a complete list of every student in the target population to achieve simple random sampling. This is rarely possible, so very few, if any, educational studies use simple random sampling.